Reprint Information

The articles published on are copyrighted material. If you would like to distribute any of the articles to others, there are three options:

  1. Linking (no charge) - permission is not required for other websites to link to any article.

  2. Printed copy distribution (requires payment of a licensing fee) - permission is required for the distribution of printed paper copies and granted only upon payment of the appropriate licensing fee.

  3. Electronic distribution (requires payment of a licensing fee) - distributing the articles via Internet, Intranet, or other electronic means. Permission is required and granted only upon payment of the electronic distribution licensing fee.

The following terms outline our reprint policies and pricing.


This option involves implementing a hypertext link from another web site to the article of interest, or providing the persons with the URL of the article (that is, the string of characters beginning with "http://") so that they may enter the URL into their web browser and visit the article directly on the web server. Sending visitors to the site is both welcomed and encouraged. Since the pointing of visitors directly to the site via links involves neither paper nor electronic copies, such linking does not require payment of a reprint fee.


Reprint rights are available for a fee based on the number of articles reprinted and number of copies made of each article.

Paper reprints include the following:

  • direct printouts from the web browser

  • printouts made by copying and pasting the page content from the browser screen to another document that then is printed.

  • photocopies of either of the above

For paper reprints, the appropriate license fee must be paid and the copyright notice and a permission code must be displayed clearly on each article. This permission code is provided to you once the reprint permission fee has been invoiced.

Reprint permission is not granted until the appropriate fee has been billed and you have received a notification that confirms the permission and lists the articles, the number of copies of each, and the permission code. Permissions are revoked automatically if payment is not received by the specified due date.

Reprint rights are provided exclusively by the Internet Center for Management and Business Administration, Inc. and are available from no other source.


Reprint permission pricing is based on the number of articles and the number of copies made of each article. The following are the reprint permission rates currently in effect. Please note that these rates are subject to change without notice.

Commercial Organizations

US$3.00 per article, per copy

For example:

  • Permission to make 100 copies of one article:  US$300.00

  • Permission to make 20 copies each of two articles:  US$120.00

Non-profit Organizations and Universities

US$1.75 per article, per copy

To obtain this rate, your organization must be recognized as either not-for-profit or as a public or private university. Documentation is required to show non-profit status. Universities are defined as public or private degree-granting institutions.

The above rates are for permission only. If you require that we ship the physical paper copies to you, we can provide you a customized quote upon request.

We reserve the right to specify a minimum order amount depending on the details of your reprint request.

Payment is in U.S. dollars by check, bank transfer, credit card, or other mutually agreeable method of payment. In the case of credit card payments, license is provided by the Internet Center for Management and Business Administration, Inc., sold by Inc. (Ohio, USA).


In cases where paper reprints are not practical, we recommend that you either link to us or provide your audience the URL (Internet address) of the document of interest so that they may view the article directly from the web server via the Internet.

If paper reprints, hypertext linking, and URL distribution are not practical, electronic distribution rights may be purchased. Electronic distribution includes any of the following means:

  • Internet (other than direct viewing from the site)
  • intranet
  • e-mail
  • computer disk such as floppy disk or CD-ROM.
  • online retrieval systems
  • any other electronic means

Due to the complexities of electronic content licensing, the terms and pricing of electronic reprint permission are substantially different from those of paper reprints and are specified in the following paragraph.

Electronic distribution rights are licensed on a per article, per year basis. For electronic distribution, no distinction is made between commercial organizations and non-profit organizations or universities. The current fee for permission to distribute any single article by electronic means is $19,750 U.S. for one year. The copyright notice and reprint permission code must be displayed according to the terms provided at the time of licensing; otherwise the licensing fee will be trebled. Prorating of electronic distribution fees for portions of articles or for periods shorter than one year is not offered. Specifically, if only a portion of an article is electronically published, the fee is billed as though the entire article were published. Similarly, if the article is electronically published for less than one full year, the fee is billed as though it were published for one full year. Electronic distribution rights must be purchased directly from the Internet Center for Management and Business Administration, Inc. and are available from no other source.


To purchase reprint permission, or for inquiries regarding reprint permission, please use this site's contact form. In your message, please provide the name of your organization, the URL or title of the article or articles for which you would like reprint permission, the media type of the reprint (paper or electronic), the number of copies of each, and how the reprints will be used.


The reprint terms described above are subject to change without notice. The policies in effect at any time are those posted on this site.

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